CfP: Humanitarianism and the Remaking of International Law: History, Ideology, Practice, Technology

Cross-posted from: http://www.lpil.org/events/humanitarianism

Conference
Thu, May 31, 2018, 9:00am –
Fri, Jun 1, 2018, 5:00pm

Danang. Réfugiés s’étant organisés dans la cour de l’école. Photographer: Michel Schroeder, ICRC Archive

Call for Papers: Deadline 1 September 2017

The language and logic of humanitarianism occupy an increasingly central place in international law. Humanitarian reason has shaped the ideology, practice, and technologies of international law over the past century, including through the redescription of the laws of war as international humanitarian law, the framing of mass displacement and armed conflict as ‘humanitarian’ crises, the use of humanitarian justifications for intervention, occupation, and detention, and the representation of international law as an expression of the conscience of humanity.

For some, this trend is clearly positive – international law is reimagined as humanity’s law, humanity as the alpha and omega of international law. Yet critics have pointed to the dark side of these developments and of the humanitarian logic operating within international law, arguing that consolidation of the laws of war has served the interests of powerful groups and states at key moments of potential challenge to existing systems of rule, humanitarianism has been taken up as a language to rationalise the violence of certain forms of occupation, intervention, and warfare, international humanitarian law has displaced other more constraining forms of law as the world becomes imagined as a global battlefield, humanitarian NGOs have served as a fifth column that has enabled particular forms of social transformation and constrained others, and a supposedly impartial humanitarianism has displaced politics.

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Research fellowships for international postdocs

The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) awards

Research fellowships for international postdocs

for a research stay in Mainz beginning in April 2018 or later.

Deadline: October 1, 2017.

Applicant profile

The IEG awards fellowships for international young researchers in history, theology and other historical subjects. The IEG promotes research on the historical foundations of Europe from the early modern period to 1989/90, particularly regarding their religious, political and social dimensions. Projects dealing with European communication and transfer processes as well as projects focusing on questions related to theology, church history and intellectual history are particularly welcome.

What we offer

Funding is € 1,800/month. Research fellows live and work for between 6 and 12 months at the Institute in Mainz and can pursue their individual research project (extension possible).

Aims

This fellowship is intended to help you develop your own research project in close collaboration with scholars working at the IEG. Your contribution consist in bringing your own interests to bear on the work of the IEG and its research programme »negotiating difference in Europe«. This includes the possibility of developing a perspective for further cooperation with the IEG. If for this purpose a promising application for third-party funding is submitted, an extension of the fellowship is possible.

Requirements

  • Applicants must have completed their doctorate no more than three years before taking up the fellowship.
  • Fellows are required to register officially as residents in Mainz and to take part in events at the Institute.
  • Fellows are not permitted to undertake paid work while receiving the IEG fellowship.
  • The linguae academicae at the IEG are German and English; fellows must have a passive command of both and an active command of at least one of the two languages so as to participate in the discussions at the Institute.

Please send your application via e-mail to: fellowship@ieg-mainz.de
Subject: Stipendienbewerbung 

For further information on the fellowship programme and application see:

http://www.ieg-mainz.de/en/fellowships/application_details

 

Guest Lectures of the GHRA 2017

Our third Global Humanitarianism Research Academy (GHRA) has started with one week of academic training at the Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) Mainz before continuing with archival research at the ICRC Archives in Geneva. On this occasion the GHRA is very pleased to welcome Dr. Jean-Luc Blondel and Prof. Madeleine Herren-Oesch as two distinguished guest lecturers on Wednesday, July 12, 2017.

In the morning session Dr. Jean-Luc Blondel, the former Head of the ICRC Archives and former special advisor to the previous ICRC president, will speak on ICRC work and policies during the period 1966 to 1975.

In the afternoon session Prof. Madeleine Herren-Oesch, Director of the Institute for European Global Studies at the University of Basel will give the guest lecture “Exchange ships: enemy aliens, repatriation and forced migration during World War II”.

We are all very much looking forward to these two presentations and the following discussion!

 

“On site, in time”: Chios by Fabian Klose

Regarding our new IEG open access publication “On site, in time” here is my article on the island of Chios, in which I focus on the massacre of Chios in 1822 and its impact on international interventionism.

Cross-posted from: http://en.ieg-differences.eu/on-site-in-time/fabian-klose-chios/

The Massacre of Chios in 1822 (constellations)

During the year 1822, European capitals were inundated with reports about a massacre of the Christian population of Chios. The island, a few kilometres from the mainland of Asia Minor in the eastern Aegean, and the supposed birthplace of the ancient poet Homer, had become the scene of one of the bloodiest episodes of the Greek War of Independence. At the time, Greece belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Starting in March 1821, an armed uprising against the rule of the Sultan emerged in different places in Greece. In the reconquest of Chios in April 1822, Ottoman troops operated with extreme brutality. They pillaged and plundered the Greek settlements, murdering in the process an estimated 25,000 residents and abducting more 45,000 to the slave markets of the Ottoman Empire. While the Greek independence movement itself relied on merciless warfare and likewise perpetrated a series of massacres of the Muslim population, the European reporting concentrated almost exclusively on the Ottoman atrocities against the Christian population.

Such messages inspired the French painter Eugène Delacroix to create the historical painting “The Massacre of Chios.”[1] Presented to a wider public for the first time in 1824 during the Parisian salons, it also caused a great sensation beyond the borders of France. The emotionally charged depiction of the Greeks, who had been at the mercy of the Ottoman soldiery, drew on a humanitarian narrative that had already more or less developed in the course of the campaigns against the slave trade. With his visualization of suffering, Delacroix intended to arouse the concern and sympathy of the viewers for the fate of the Greeks and thereby to mobilize political support for the Greek struggle for independence.

Eugène Delacroix, Le Massacre de Scio, oil/canvas, 1824

Europe’s solidarity and the stigmatization of the Ottoman Empire (differences)

The events on Chios provoked (not least thanks to Delacroix’ painting) a sense of outrage throughout Europe and a feeling of solidarity with the Greek striving for freedom virtually throughout the entire continent. The Philhellenism, which originated in the late 18th century from a cultural enthusiasm  for ancient Greece, now took on tremendous political relevance in the wake of the reporting on the massacre. Philhellenic committees – initially in German speaking countries, then in France and Great Britain as well as other European countries – began to form to recruit volunteers to fight in Greece, to collect funds for the insurgents, and, in general, to mobilize public Support. Continue reading

IEG Research Fellowships for Ph.D. Students

The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) awards

Research fellowships for

international Ph.D. students

for a research stay in Mainz beginning in March 2018.

Profil

The IEG awards fellowships for international junior researchers in history, theology and other historical subjects. The IEG promotes research on the historical foundations of Europe from the early modern period to 1989/90, particularly regarding their religious, political and social dimensions. Projects dealing with European communication and transfer processes as well as projects focusing on questions related to theology, church history and intellectual history are particularly welcome.

What we offer

Funding is currently € 1,200/month. Research fellows live and work for between 6 and 12 months at the Institute in Mainz and can pursue their individual Ph.D. project. Fellows are advised by a mentor from among the IEG’s academic staff.

Requirements

PhD theses continue to be supervised and are completed under the auspices of the fellows’ home universities. Fellows are required to register officially as residents in Mainz and to reside and take part in events at the Institute. The linguae academicae at the IEG are German and English; fellows must have a passive command of both and an active command of at least one of the two languages so as to participate in the discussions at the Institute.

Please send your application via e-mail to: fellowship@ieg-mainz.de  Subject: Stipendienbewerbung

Deadline for Application:

15 August 2017

For further information on the fellowship program and application see:

http://www.ieg-mainz.de/en/fellowships/application_details

http://www.ieg-mainz.de/media/public/PDF-Stipendien/Bewerbungsformular_Application%20Form_PhD.pdf

Contact:

Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) | Fellowship Programme | Barbara Müller, M. A. Alte Universitaetsstraße 19 | 55116 Mainz – Germany | E-Mail: ieg3@ieg-mainz.de | Tel. 0049 (0)6131 – 39 39365

“On site, in time”: St. Louis by Sarah Panter

Regarding our new IEG open access publication “On site, in time” here is Sarah Panter’s article on St. Louis, in which she focuses on German revolutionaries and aboltion.

Cross-posted from: http://en.ieg-differences.eu/on-site-in-time/sarah-panter-st-louis-mo/

For the Union and against slavery: the Camp Jackson Affair in May 1861

St. Louis, which was originally founded in 1763 as a French trading post, grew into a centre of European immigration from the 1830s and became a hub for settlers in the American West. The city’s favourable location on the Mississippi River earned it the name “Gateway to the West”. The Missouri territory, however, was not acquired by the United States from France (“Louisiana Purchase”) until 1803. Under the so-called Missouri Compromise, the area was included in the Union in 1821 as a state where slavery was legal. Still, unlike many Southern states, Missouri had only few slaves.

Depiction of Camp Jackson affair, first published in the New York Illustrated News on 05.25.1861 under the title “Terrible Tragedy at St. Louis, Mo.”

The key role of St. Louis as a stronghold of secular “abolitionism” was already apparent in the early stages of the American Civil War (1861–1865). On May 10th, 1861, tensions developed at Camp Jackson between pro-Union and pro-Confederate militias regarding the nearby St. Louis Arsenal, which belonged to federal troops. In the ranks of the pro-Union militia there were many German immigrants. By contrast, along with governor of Missouri Claiborne Fox Jackson (1806–1862) and the local slaveholders, most Irish immigrants supported the Confederate camp. When shots were fired during this dispute, turmoil ensued and anti-German insults followed. In the end, there were 30 deaths. The Union militias were finally able to successfully defend the armoury, and Missouri remained part of the Union. At the same time, however, the incidents led to deep divisions among the population.

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What Does it Mean to Act with Humanity?

Cross-posted from imperialglobalexeter

Fabian Klose and Mirjam Thulin (eds.), Humanity: A History of European Concepts in Practice From the Sixteenth Century to the Present. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2016. 324 pp. £75 (hardback), ISBN: 9783525101452

Reviewed by Ben Holmes (University of Exeter)

What does it mean to belong to the human race? Does this belonging bring with it particular rights as well as responsibilities? What does it mean to act with humanity? These are some of the big questions lying at the heart of a new edited collection from Fabian Klose and Mirjam Thulin, Humanity: A History of European Concepts in Practice From the Sixteenth Century to the Present (2016). Based on a 2015 conference at the Leibniz Institute in Mainz, the book, as the title suggests, is not a purely conceptual history of the term ‘humanity’.[1] Rather it looks to discover ‘the concrete implications of theoretical discourses on the concept of humanity’ [page 18]. In other words, how did ideas of ‘humanity’ guide European practices in areas like humanism, imperialism, international law, humanitarianism, and human rights?[2] The editors argue that despite the implied timeless, universal nature of the term, humanity is both a changing, dynamic concept, and has been prone to create divisions as much as it promotes commonality. Although the volume is a study of European conceptions of humanity, the contributions are transnational, displaying how conceptions of humanity were practiced in Europe and in the continent’s interactions with the wider world over the course of five-hundred years.

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Graduate Workshop 2017/18 at Leibniz Institute of European History

European History across Boundaries from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century

Cross-posted from http://europehist.hypotheses.org/219

Conveners: Gregor Feindt, Johannes Paulmann (Mainz) and Lyndal Roper (Oxford)
Venue: Leibniz Institute of European History, Mainz, Germany
Date: 24 – 26 January 2018
Deadline for Applications: 16 July 2017

The Leibniz Institute of European History invites international PhD students to a workshop on European history across boundaries from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, including Europe’s relations with the world. We encourage researchers working in this field to present their dissertation projects and to discuss the transcultural and transnational scope of their findings in a stimulating environment. Topics that aim to cross and reflect boundaries and borders are of particular interest. Projects can employ a variety of methodical approaches such as comparative studies, the study of transfer processes and entanglements, or the histoire croisée.

The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG), an independent research institution in Mainz (Germany), contributes to this new approach from an interdisciplinary perspective. It fosters research on the religious, social, and political dynamics in Europe from the early modern period into the twentieth century and focusses on processes of establishing, coping with and enabling difference. The Graduate Workshop 2017/18 takes place in cooperation with Lyndal Roper, Regius Chair of History at the University of Oxford.

At the workshop, we will discuss pre-circulated papers based on archival research (max. 8,000 words, written in English, submitted by 7 January 2018). The institute will provide accommodation for the duration of the workshop and contribute to travel expenses within Europe.

Proposals should include an abstract of the overall project and its archival sources (500 words) plus a brief biographical note (including institutional affiliation, thesis supervisors, and contact details). These documents should be sent in one pdf-file to Gregor Feindt – feindt@ieg-mainz.de – by no later than 16 July 2017. For any questions, please contact the organisers.

CfP Graduate Workshop 2017_2018 pdf

“On site, in time”: Nantes by Thomas Weller

Regarding our new IEG open access publication “On site, in time” here is Thomas Weller’s article on Nantes, in which he focuses on the issues of religious freedom and slavery.

Cross-posted from: http://en.ieg-differences.eu/on-site-in-time/thomas-weller-nantes/

The Edict of Nantes

Peace by Edict (constellations)

On April 13th, 1598 in the city of Nantes, King Henry IV of France signed a document ending a series of religious wars that had devastated the country and brought the French monarchy to the point of ruin. In the form of Calvinism, Protestantism had been attracting increasing numbers of followers in France by the mid-16th century. These Huguenots, as they were called, were persecuted by the Catholic Church and the French Crown. Intensified by a dynastic crisis after the death of King Henry II (1559) the conflict escalated to a veritable civil war. One of the bloody climaxes of this more than 30-year struggle was the so-called St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572), in which between 3,000 and 4,000 Protestants died in Paris alone.

The Edict of Nantes

When Henry of Navarre, the Huguenot military leader, succeeded the murdered Henry III to the throne, the conflict appeared again to worsen. Only after the new king converted to Catholicism in 1593 and was accepted by the Catholics was the path open to a peaceful solution to the conflict. Five years later, Henry IV guaranteed his erstwhile fellow Protestants a series of privileges that henceforth would ensure a non-violent coexistence for the two Christian confessions under the protection of the Crown.

Confessional Division and Political Unity (differences)

With the Edict of Nantes, which in large part resembled earlier so-called pacification edicts, France’s confessional division was reinforced. The ideal of religious unity in the commonwealth was sacrificed in the name of political unity. Although the document was in fact the result of negotiations between the warring parties, it took the form of a royal amnesty. Thus the Edict’s legal form made it in principle revocable, even though its text called it “perpetual” and “irrevocable”.[1] On this basis, it was possible to pacify the violent conflict for nearly 100 years and establish rules for the coexistence of Catholics and Protestants that were accepted by both sides.

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New IEG Open Access Publication “On site, in time”

Historically, how were difference and inequality negotiated in Europe? What were the parts played by religion, society and politics? “On site, in time” takes a look at events that took place in European locations and that exemplify Europe¹s historical development since 1500. The c. 60 articles illustrate the various and conflict-ridden ways of negotiating differences and inequality. They depict strategies that were developed to promote, present, preserve, mitigate or abolish difference. Such strategies may include discussions, peaceful solutions and aid as well migration, mission and protest or even exclusion, war and destruction.

Negotiating differences in Europe, ed. for the Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) by Joachim Berger, Irene Dingel and Johannes Paulmann, Mainz 2016.

The open access publication “On site, in time” is a product of the current research programme “Negotiating differences in Modern Europe” of the Leibnitz Institute of European History (IEG). Its aim is, on the one hand, to provide basic information on how differences were negotiated in Modern Europe, and on the other hand to make the research carried out at the IEG understandable and available to a wider audience. “On site, in time” is therefore meant for everyone with a distinct interest in history, religion, politics, and societal questions.

In the next couple of weeks I will present some examples of these articles directly related to the history of humanitarianism and human rights here on hhr!

In the meantime enjoy discovering the new IEG open access publication “On site, in time”!

Prof. Barbara Keys as Senior Research Fellow at the IEG Mainz

Prof. Barbara Keys from the University of Melbourne is staying as Senior Research Fellow in May and June 2017 at the IEG Mainz.

Her research focuses on the area of international human rights, the influence of transnational movements and organizations on international affairs, the role of emotions in history, and the history of sport. Her most recent book, Reclaiming American Virtue: The Human Rights Revolution of the 1970s (Harvard University Press, 2014), offers an explanation of the origins of the human rights “boom” of the 1970s in the United States.

Her current projects include a book on anti-torture campaigns since the end of the Second World War and their effects on global human rights movements. Accordingly, she will give a lecture on the topic of “Anti-Torture Campaigns since 1945” on May 30, 2017 at the IEG.

Her first book, Globalizing Sport: National Rivalry and International Community in the 1930s (Harvard University Press, 2006), is a transnational study of the emergence of international sports competitions as a significant political and cultural force in the 1930s. It won six prizes, including the Myrna Bernath Book Prize of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations and the best book award of the North American Society for Sport History. She has written several articles and chapters on sports in the Cold War.

You can find and download many of her publications at academia.edu: https://unimelb.academia.edu/BarbaraKeys.

DFG-Network “Jurists in International Politics”

Juristen in der internationalen Politik. Praxis und Praktiker des Völkerrechts im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert

Wissenschaftliches Netzwerk der DFG organisiert von Dr. Marcus Payk (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin)

 

Das wissenschaftliche Netzwerk bringt Nachwuchswissenschaftlerinnen und Nachwuchswissenschaftler aus der Geschichts- und Rechtswissenschaft zusammen, um über Juristen als Akteure in der internationalen Politik zu debattieren. Dazu werden aktuelle Trends der historischen Erforschung des Völkerrechts zusammengetragen, konzeptionell reflektiert und methodisch weitergeführt. In einem strukturierten Rahmen sollen aufeinander bezogene Fallstudien entstehen, welche die Rolle einzelner Juristen oder institutionalisierter Juristengruppen in den internationalen Beziehungen exemplarisch erschließen. Ziel ist ein Beitrag, der die Bedeutung des internationalen Rechts, seiner politischen Indienstnahme wie seiner Eigenlogik, auf einer individuellen Handlungs- und Entscheidungsebene historisch greifbar macht. Das Netzwerk führt eine Reihe von Arbeitstreffen durch, die in einen Workshop und eine Publikation einmünden.

Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer

 

  • Prof. Dr. Jochen v. Bernstorff (Universität Tübingen)
  • Dr. Julia Eichenberg (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin)
  • Dr. Gabriela Frei (Jesus College, Oxford)
  • PD Dr. Michael Jonas (Universität der Bundeswehr, Hamburg)
  • Alexandra Kemmerer, LL.M. Eur. (Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, Heidelberg)
  • PD Dr. Fabian Klose (Leibniz-Institut für Europäische Geschichte, Mainz)
  • Dr. Isabella Löhr (Leibniz-Institut für Geschichte und Kultur des östlichen Europa, Leipzig)
  • Dr. Dietmar Müller (Leibniz-Institut für Geschichte und Kultur des östlichen Europa Leipzig)
  • Dr. Marcus Payk (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin)
  • Prof. Dr. Kim Christian Priemel (University of Oslo)
  • Dr. Katharina Rietzler (University of Sussex)
  • Dr. Cindy Wittke (Universität Konstanz)

Workshop Arguments for and against Socioeconomic Rights, Past and Present

Socioeconomic Rights in History Workshop Leverhulme Trust International Network at Harvard Law School March 20-21, 2017

Programme:

March 20, Monday

9:00 – 9:30am Introduction

9:30 – 11:15am Small group meetings

Six groups will meet separately to discuss papers

Group 1: The Early Modern and Enlightenment Eras Claudia Stein, Darrin McMahon and Dan Edelstein

Group 2: The Age of Revolutions Charles Walton, Mark Philp, Hannah Callaway, Philip Kaisary

Group 3: Labour Rights and Gender Tonia Novitz, Jennifer Klein, Laura Frader, Alice Kessler-Harris

Group 4: Socioeconomic Rights before 1948 Marco Duranti, Stephen Sawyer, William Novak, Samuel Moyn

Groups 5 and 6 will meet together Group 5: Socioeconomic Rights in 1948 and after Mark Goodale, Christian Christiansen, Steven Jensen, Samuel Moyn

Group 6: Interdisciplinary inflections and Recent History Sridhar Venkatapuram, Radhika Balakrishnan, Mark Goodale

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Call for Papers The Family, Human Rights and Internationalism Global Historical-Sociological Perspectives

10-11 November 2017

University of Göttingen

Historical and historical-sociological research on the history of human rights discourse and law has abounded in recent years. However, it has neglected one of the key issues that informed early thinking about human rights: the family as a protected category. This conference addresses this issue by approaching it from the perspective of global historical sociology. In this way, the conference also sheds important light on the historical diffusion of cultural and legal norms on the family and sexuality. It reflects on various religious and other imaginaries of the family and considers how they emerged and spread across the globe. How have human rights law and discourse intersected with the family and sexuality? How has this connection taken shape in different historical contexts? And, how has it evolved since the nineteenth century?

The conference brings together historians and historical sociologists interested in the global development of norms and practices related to the family through international law, international institutions, migration and empires. Papers are invited that focus on these issues from a historical perspective for the nineteenth and twentieth century. They can consider various mechanisms through which norms on the family intersected with ideas about human rights, for example, through empires and their collapse; intellectuals; war; and, migration, amongst others. Papers on regions around the globe are welcome, as are contributions on relevant international bodies and individuals who have been influential in this regard.

Keynote lectures will be provided by Professor Samuel Moyn (Harvard) and Professor Sally Engle Merry (NYU).

The conference will take place at the University of Göttingen, and reasonable travel costs and accommodation will be provided for accepted presenters.

Organisers:

Dr Julia Moses, Dept. of History, Univ. of Sheffield / Institute of Sociology, Univ. of Göttingen

Prof Matthias Koenig, Institute of Sociology, University of Göttingen

To apply to participate, please send a short abstract (ca. 150-300 words) to Dr Julia Moses (j.moses@sheffield.ac.uk) by 31 March 2017.

This event is sponsored by the EU-funded MARDIV project at the University of Göttingen.

CfA Rethinking the World Order: International Law and International Relations at the End of the First World War

The horrors of the Great War and the desire for peace shaped scholarship in International Law and International Relations (IR) during the late 1910s—a stimulating time for both disciplines. Scholars observed and analysed political events as they unfolded but also took an active part, as governmental advisors or diplomatic officials, in devising the new international order. The Paris Peace Conference and the subsequent birth of the League of Nations as well as the Permanent Court of International Justice served as testing grounds for new legal and political concepts. The end of the First World War was in many ways a milestone for both disciplines, prompting scholars to reflect on the consequences of the war on society, politics, and the world economy. How could another world war be avoided in the future? How could states be held accountable for violations of international law? What were the preconditions for peaceful international governance?  These questions led to pioneering research on issues such as arbitration, sanctions, revision of treaties, supra-national governance, disarmament, self-determination, migration, and the protection of minorities. At the same time, the study of International Law and IR also advanced in terms of methodology and teaching, including new professorships, journals, conferences and research centres.

A century later, it is a good moment to reflect upon disciplinary histories and revisit some of the theoretical and practical debates that shaped the period from 1914 to 1945. The workshop conveners are particularly (but not exclusively) interested in the following research questions:

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